Mercado Victoria occupies the former Caseta del Círculo de la Amistad, a wrought-iron zinc-roofed structure originally erected in the Paseo de la Victoria as a fairground pavilion for members of a private club, the Círculo de la Amistad.
The pavilion, built in 1877, was the oldest of its kind at Córdoba May Fair, an annual fair held in the Jardines de La Victoria until 1994 when it was removed to its current venue at El Arenal.
The wrought-iron structure was the work of La Catalana ironworks in Seville. The pavilion had no walls, canvas being traditionally used for this purpose.
In 1918, a single-floor masonry structure was added, designed in a pseudo-Mudejar style by architect Adolfo Castiñera.